Cardiac Arrest
CPR training

Cardiac Arrest

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​Introduction Cardiac arrest is an 'arrest' in the activity of the heart - the heart has stopped beating. There will be no contraction of the heart muscle, but there may…

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Cardiac Catheterization
A coronary angiogram showing good blood flow int he left circumflex artery after a stunting procedure. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Cardiac Catheterization

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Introduction This is not necessarily the same as coronary angiography, although the two terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Cardiac catheterisation is the process by which you gain catheter access to…

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Cardiac Tamponade
The Normal pericardial sac - seize exaggerated in this diagram. Original image from Wikimedia commons. Author: Connexions

Cardiac Tamponade

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Introduction Cardiac Tamponade is a condition where the heart become compressed by excess fluid in the pericardium. Compression causes reduced diastolic filling of the heart, which can cause cardiac arrest.…

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Cardiomyopathy
Dilated Cardiomyopathy X-ray. Noe the implanted defibrillator and previous mitral valve replacement

Cardiomyopathy

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Introduction Cardiomyopathy is a term used to describe a heart muscle disorder, without another obvious cardiac abnormality. The European Heart Journal describes it as a: myocardial disorder in which heart…

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Cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis
Pathology of Atherosclerosis - [Image from Wikimedia Commons and Reproduced in accordance with the terms of the GNU free documentation license v1.2]

Cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis

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Introduction Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Western Society. About 1 in 6 people suffer from the various forms of the disease, and it accounts for 30-40%…

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Cardiovascular Examination

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Introduction Male students will require a chaperone to examine female patients. You should ask your patient to strip to the waist. Female patients can cover up (with a sheet or…

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Cardiovascular Physiology

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Comparison of skeletal and cardiac muscleSkeletal Muscle Cells The cells are called skeletal muscle fibres. They run the whole length of the muscle.They have hundreds of nuclei, and are formed by…

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CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc Scores
Scoring systemis in medicine

CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc Scores

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The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc ("Chads-Vasc") scores are used for assessing the risk of stroke in AF. Generally in clinical use, the CHA2DS2-VASc has superseded use of the CHADS2 score, which has been…

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Chest X-Ray
A normal CXR in a healthy young male. In particular note the normal markings, clear costophrenic angles, and clear lung fields. There is quite a large gastric bubble, but this is not considered pathologic.

Chest X-Ray

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Introduction The chest x-ray (also known as CXR or Chest Radiograph) is probably the most commonly performed medical imaging procedure. An x-ray can typically discern 4 different densities: Air (black) Metal - i.e.…

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Coarctation of the aorta
Coarctation of the aorta. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Coarctation of the aorta

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Introduction Coarctation of the aorta – L-to-R shunt – ACYANOTIC Accounts for up to 10% of congential heart defects Male:female ratio is 2:1 Affects 10-20% of patients with Turner’s Syndrome…

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