Congenital Cyanotic Heart Disease

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Congenital cyanotic heart disease ‚Äď aka blue baby syndrome¬†accounts for about 25% of all congenital heart defects Causes There are lots more! In the exam, you might be asked to…

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Congenital Heart Disease

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Introduction Cardiac abnormalities in children are predominantly congenital. There are a wide range of diseases that can be classified as congenital heart diseases, some of which are life-threatening, whilst other…

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Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)

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Introduction Along with angioplasty this is the other coronary revascularisation technique used for the treatment of IHD (ischaemic heart disease). Indications Various studies have shown that high and medium risk…

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Introduction Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside, which have two main effects: Increases the force of contractions¬†(through increased intracellular Ca2+‚Äč) Reduce conduction through the AV node It is most commonly used…

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Normal Control of Renal Function Overview Osmotic Diuretics Potassium Sparing Diuretics Thiazide Diuretics Loop Diuretics Proximal Tubule Diuretics

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ECG Abnormalities
Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome (WPW)

ECG Abnormalities

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This article "ECG Abnormalities" is part of the almostadoctor ECG series.¬†It provides information about the interpretation of ECGs. For a quick view of common ECG abnormalities see Summary of ECG…

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Introduction Often just called an 'echo', echocardiography is ultrasound of the heart. It gives a reasonably accurate picture of the valves and chambers of the heart, and also gives an…

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Exercise Tolerance Test (ETT)

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Introduction Exercise tolerance test -¬†aka Exercise ECG testing Used to: Confirm the diagnosis of angina Give an indication of the severity of CAD ‚Äď thus allowing you to asses risk.…

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Introduction Falls are an incredibly common presentation. You will see them as GP referrals, A+E presentations, and countless times on the ward. Exactly how you examine and manage the patient…

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Heart Failure
Pitting Oedema

Heart Failure

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Introduction Heart failure (also CCF -¬†congestive cardiac failure)¬†is a clinical syndrome which refers to a state of reduced cardiac output. Typically it is defined as: The inability of the heart…

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