Hypertension
Its at about this point that I tell my patients to "take a couple of deep breaths, and think some relaxing thoughts..."

Hypertension

  • Reading time:19 mins read

Introduction Hypertension is one of the most common medical diagnoses, and also one of the most well studied. Hypertension rarely causes any symptoms in its own right, but is clinically…

Continue Reading Hypertension

Hypertrophic Caromyopathy (HCM)

  • Reading time:5 mins read

Introduction Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, also known as Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy (HOCM), is an autosomal dominant disorder, where there is thickening (hypertrophy) of the myocardium, particularly of the left ventricle, without an…

Continue Reading Hypertrophic Caromyopathy (HCM)

Infective Endocarditis

  • Reading time:14 mins read

Introduction Infective Endocarditis (IE) is a condition caused by infection of the endocardium by bacteria, or very rarely, fungus. It most commonly affects the heart valves (natural or prosthetic), but…

Continue Reading Infective Endocarditis

Introduction to Cardiovascular Exam

  • Reading time:2 mins read

For a detailed walkthrough of the cardiovascular examination, please go to the Cardiovascular Examination OSCE section INTRODUCTION Wash hands Introduce- “My name is…” Consent – “I have been asked to…

Continue Reading Introduction to Cardiovascular Exam

Mitral Regurgitation

  • Reading time:3 mins read

Introduction Mitral regurgitation can be cause be either a primary valve disorder, or can be secondary to left ventricular dysfunction. In the developed world, most cases are due to degenerative…

Continue Reading Mitral Regurgitation
Myocardial Infarction and Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)
ECG showing Inferior STEMI

Myocardial Infarction and Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)

  • Reading time:22 mins read

Introduction Acute Coronary Syndrome is an umbrella term for a spectrum of disease caused by ischaemia (and in some cases infarction) of myocardium (loss of blood supply to heart muscle). It…

Continue Reading Myocardial Infarction and Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)
Myocarditis
Viral myocarditis on histology. This sample was taken at post-mortem, but occasionally biopsies will be taken from patients during the diagnostic work-up. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Myocarditis

  • Reading time:4 mins read

Introduction Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardial layer of heart muscle. Myo=muscle, card=heart, itis=inflammation. The heart wall is made of 3 layers: Endocardium (layer of endothelium & connective tissue lining…

Continue Reading Myocarditis

Normal Control of BP

  • Reading time:20 mins read

The physics Flow = pressure difference / resistance Thus, the two main factors in determining flow are pressure within a vessel, and the resistance of a vessel. Velocity The velocity…

Continue Reading Normal Control of BP
NYHA Heart Failure Classification
Scoring systemis in medicine

NYHA Heart Failure Classification

  • Reading time:1 mins read

New York (NYHA) classification of heart failure Class I (Mild): Heart disease present, but no undue dyspnoea from ordinary     activity. Class II (Mild): Comfortable at rest; dyspnoea on ordinary activities.…

Continue Reading NYHA Heart Failure Classification

Overview of Heart Murmurs

  • Reading time:2 mins read

Overview of Murmurs - Click for full size Eponymous signs of aortic regurgitation Name Sign Austin Flint Murmur Mid-diastolic murmur in the absence of mitral stenosis Becker Sign Accentuated Retinal…

Continue Reading Overview of Heart Murmurs