Its at about this point that I tell my patients to "take a couple of deep breaths, and think some relaxing thoughts..."


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Introduction Hypertension is one of the most common medical diagnoses, and also one of the most well studied. Hypertension rarely causes any symptoms in its own right, but is clinically…

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Hypertrophic Caromyopathy (HCM)

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Introduction Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, also known as Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy (HOCM), is an autosomal dominant disorder, where there is thickening (hypertrophy) of the myocardium, particularly of the left ventricle, without an…

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Infective Endocarditis

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Introduction Infective Endocarditis (IE) is a condition caused by infection of the endocardium by bacteria, or very rarely, fungus. It most commonly affects the heart valves (natural or prosthetic), but…

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Introduction to Cardiovascular Exam

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For a detailed walkthrough of the cardiovascular examination, please go to the Cardiovascular Examination OSCE section INTRODUCTION Wash hands Introduce- “My name is…” Consent – “I have been asked to…

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Mitral Regurgitation

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Introduction Mitral regurgitation can be cause be either a primary valve disorder, or can be secondary to left ventricular dysfunction. In the developed world, most cases are due to degenerative…

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Myocardial Infarction and Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)
ECG showing Inferior STEMI

Myocardial Infarction and Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)

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Introduction Acute Coronary Syndrome is an umbrella term for a spectrum of disease caused by ischaemia (and in some cases infarction) of myocardium (loss of blood supply to heart muscle). It…

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Viral myocarditis on histology. This sample was taken at post-mortem, but occasionally biopsies will be taken from patients during the diagnostic work-up. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.


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Introduction Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardial layer of heart muscle. Myo=muscle, card=heart, itis=inflammation. The heart wall is made of 3 layers: Endocardium (layer of endothelium & connective tissue lining…

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Normal Control of BP

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The physics Flow = pressure difference / resistance Thus, the two main factors in determining flow are pressure within a vessel, and the resistance of a vessel. Velocity The velocity…

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NYHA Heart Failure Classification
Scoring systemis in medicine

NYHA Heart Failure Classification

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New York (NYHA) classification of heart failure Class I (Mild): Heart disease present, but no undue dyspnoea from ordinary     activity. Class II (Mild): Comfortable at rest; dyspnoea on ordinary activities.…

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Overview of Heart Murmurs

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Overview of Murmurs - Click for full size Eponymous signs of aortic regurgitation Name Sign Austin Flint Murmur Mid-diastolic murmur in the absence of mitral stenosis Becker Sign Accentuated Retinal…

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