Abdominal X-Ray
Toxic Megacolon on abdominal x-ray

Abdominal X-Ray

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Introduction An abdominal x-ray (AXR) is a commonly performed x-ray for some gastrointestinal presentations. Generally, its use is limited - many abdominal conditions are better diagnosed clinically, or with an…

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Arterial Blood Gas – ABG –  Interpretation
Oxygen dissociation curve

Arterial Blood Gas – ABG – Interpretation

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Introduction to Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation Arterial Blood Gas interpretation can be a daunting and difficult skill for any medical student or junior doctor. Try to look at as many…

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Dietary sources of calcium include milk and other dairy products, notes and seeds, fish, dates broccoli and other leafy green vegetables.


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See also: Calcium, Vitamin D and Bone Density Parathyroid Glands Roles of Calcium Contraction of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle Blood clotting Control of nerve impulses Increases in the level…

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Chest X-Ray
A normal CXR in a healthy young male. In particular note the normal markings, clear costophrenic angles, and clear lung fields. There is quite a large gastric bubble, but this is not considered pathologic.

Chest X-Ray

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Introduction The chest x-ray (also known as CXR or Chest Radiograph) is probably the most commonly performed medical imaging procedure. An x-ray can typically discern 4 different densities: Air (black) Metal - i.e.…

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Paediatric Vital Signs

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Paediatric vital signs vary by the child's age. Generally, the normal heart rate and respiratory declines as a child grows, and the normal blood pressure increases. Unlike adult vital signs,…

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The Basics 98% is intracellular Serum range 3.5 – 5 mmol/L K+ and H+ tend to vary together Most body secretion is in urine – from distal tubules Shifts K+…

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Sodium and Hyponatraemia

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Introduction Sodium levels are very closely linked to fluid levels, as sodium is an extracellular electrolyte. As opposed to potassium which is intracellular. Hyponatraemia is commonly seen both in the…

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Flow-Volume Loop spirometry


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Introduction Spirometry is the most widely used pulmonary function test (aka lung function test). It measures the volume and flow of air during inspiration and expiration; it is an assessment of how effectively…

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Swiss Cheese Model
Swiss Cheese Model

Swiss Cheese Model

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Introduction The Swiss Cheese Model of accident causation is a way of thinking about how negative outcomes occur. The model was developed in the business and aviation industries to help…

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