Heart Failure
Pitting Oedema

Heart Failure

  • Reading time:23 mins read

Introduction Heart failure (also CCF - congestive cardiac failure) is a clinical syndrome which refers to a state of reduced cardiac output. Typically it is defined as: The inability of the heart…

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Inserting a Chest Drain

  • Reading time:3 mins read

The Safe Triangle This is a triangle created by: Mid-axillary line / boarder of latissimus dorsi Lateral boarder of pec major Imaginary horizontal line from the nipple And the drain…

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Lumbar Puncture (LP)

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Lumbar puncture is a procedure conducted to ascertain if there is an acute meningitis or sub arachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), to detect inflammation in the spinal cord (e.g. in multiple sclerosis)…

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Management of the Acutely Ill Patient

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Introduction Ok, so here’s the scenario. You are an FY1. It’s your first on call shift. It’s the middle of the night. A nurse bleeps you and says… ‘My patient’s…

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  • Reading time:9 mins read

Definitions Meningitis – although this technically only means inflammation of the meninges, it is usually taken to mean infection. Meningitis is far more common in infants and children than in…

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Myocardial Infarction and Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)
ECG showing Inferior STEMI

Myocardial Infarction and Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)

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Introduction Acute Coronary Syndrome is an umbrella term for a spectrum of disease caused by ischaemia (and in some cases infarction) of myocardium (loss of blood supply to heart muscle). It…

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Overdose – Common Drugs and Antidotes

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Drug Antidote Amitriptyline Sodium Bicarbonate Beta-blockers Glucagon Benzodiazepines Flumazenil Bupivicaine Intralipid Cyanide Hydroxocobalamin / Nitrites (inhaled) Digoxin Digoxin Antibodies Heparin Protamine Hydrofluoric Acid Calcium Iron Desferrioxamine Methanol Ethanol Methaemoglobin Methyline…

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Overdose and Poisoning

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Opiates Naloxone will reverse the effect of opiate overdose, typically in the presence of CNS and respiratory depression. It competitively binds opioid receptors, causing a blockade Usually given IV for…

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Pneumonia (Adults)

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This article describes adult respiratory tract infection. For more information, please see paediatric respiratory infections Introduction Pneumonia is a common lower respiratory tract infection, characterised by inflammation of the lung…

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Pneumothorax. Image from Wikimedia Commons. Author: BruceBlaus


  • Reading time:8 mins read

Introduction A pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space - between the lung and the chest wall. They can be: Primary – no underlying lung disease. Secondary…

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