Acromegaly in a male patient. Note the enlarged hands and prominent jaw.


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Introduction Acromegaly is a disorder that occurs due to an excess secretion of growth hormone (GH), after the fusion of the growth plates. The most obvious, and often the earliest…

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Addison’s Disease – Adrenal Insufficiency
Knee's of a patient with Addison's disease showing evidence of hyperpigmentation. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Addison’s Disease – Adrenal Insufficiency

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Introduction Addison's disease is the most common form of adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency occurs where there is destruction of the adrenal cortex and reduced output of adrenal hormones. There are…

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Conn’s Syndrome

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Introduction Conn's syndrome is primary hyperaldosteronism - an excess of aldosterone. As opposed to Cushing's Syndrome - which is an excess of glucocorticoids, and as opposed to Addison's disease which…

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Cushing’s Syndrome

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Introduction The term Cushing’s syndrome is used to describe state of excess free circulating glucocorticoid (cortisol). Florid disease is easy to spot, but subtle cases can be more difficult. The…

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Diabetes Insipidus

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Introduction Diabetes insipidus is a condition characterised by the passage of large volumes (>3L/day) of dilute urine due to impaired water resorption by the kidney, because of reduced ADH secretion…

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Diabetic Foot Check

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In diabetes it is important to check distal circulation. Diabetes affects blood vessels, causing a loss of blood supply that can lead to ischemia and tissues damage. This is particularly…

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Diabetic Retinopathy

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Introduction Diabetic retinopathy is a preventable complication of diabetes mellitus (both types 1 and 2). The risk is directly correlated to the patients glycemic control - worse control results in…

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Gestational Diabetes and Diabetes in Pregnancy

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Gestational Diabetes Introduction Resistance to insulin is a normal physiological response in pregnancy, thought to be induced by maternal hormones.  However, in some women, this is severe enough to result…

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Introduction Goitre refers to an enlarged palpable thyroid gland, which moves on swallowing. It may be a benign disorder but is also associated with several thyroid diseases, including iodine deficiency (common…

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