Delirium (Acute Confusional State)

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Delirium is defined as an acute and fluctuating disturbance in level of consciousness, attention and global cognition. Prompt treatment is required to avoid potential brain damage. The underlying mechanism is…

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Dementia is a progressive global decline cognitive function, without impairment of consciousness. It is typically defined as a syndrome secondary to one or more of multiple causes, rather than a diagnosis…

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Faecal Incontinence

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Introduction Occurs in 15% aged >65Y, increasing incidence with age in men only. Causes include: Sphincter weakness (following childbirth/surgery); Anal/rectal pathology e.g. fistulae, Crohn’s, proctitis; Neurological disease (chorda equine, pudendal nerve);…

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Introduction Falls are an incredibly common presentation. You will see them as GP referrals, A+E presentations, and countless times on the ward. Exactly how you examine and manage the patient…

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Types of incontinence This is the involuntary loss of urine, that is serious enough to cause a social or hygiene problem. It becomes more prevalent with age, with about 15%…

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Osteoporosis bone structure. Image by Servier Medical Art by Servier and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License


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Introduction Osteoporosis means literally porous bone Refers to decreased bone density, which leads to an increase in fracture risk Risk factors Bone density declines with age Highest risk is in…

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Postural Hypotension (Orthostatic Hypotension)

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Postural Hypotension is a symptom, not a condition. This is colloquially known as a ‘head rush’ or ‘dizzy spell’, and is unsteadiness or LOC on standing from lying in those…

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