Arteriovenous Malformations – AVMs
Cerebral arteriovenous malformation. by Hellerhoff is licensed with CC BY 3.0

Arteriovenous Malformations – AVMs

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The term 'AVM' can be applied to arteriovenous malformations anywhere in the body, but most commonly refers to the abnormalities found in the brain. AVMs are said to be present…

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Cerebral Aneurysm
Cerebral Aneurysm on angiography. Image by Lucien Monfils is licensed with CC BY-SA 3.0

Cerebral Aneurysm

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Introduction A cerebral Aneurysm is a localised dilation of an artery within the brain. They rarely occur in veins. They are a major risk factor for subarachnoid haemorrhage. Aneurysms can…

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Comparison of Intracranial Haemorrhage

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Comparison of Intracranial Haemorrhage Feature Subarachnoid Subdural Extradural Location The inner most layer around the brain tissue Between the dura mater and arachnoid mater The outermost layer, between the skull…

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Extradural Haemorrhage

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Extradural Haemorrhage aka Epidural Haematoma Blood collects between the dura mater and the bone of the skull. The dura is stripped away from the skull – indicating a high pressure…

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Spinal Cord Compression

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Physiology and anatomy The spinal cord runs from C1 (junction with the medulla), to about L1, where it becomes the cauda equina. Note that it terminates lower down in children…

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Subarachnoid Haemorrhage – SAH

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Introduction This is bleeding into the subarachnoid space. The classical sign is a sudden onset intense headache (“feel like I’ve been hit on the back of the head Doc”). The…

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Subdural Haematoma

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Introduction A subdural haematoma is a collection of blood between the arachnoid and dura mater. It can be acute, chronic, or acute on chronic. Most cases are chronic, and occur…

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Venous Sinus Syndrome and Venous Sinus Thrombosis

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Introduction Venous Sinus Syndrome (aka Cavernous sinus syndrome) is an umbrella term for resultant signs due to various causes affecting the cavernous sinus. The most common and clinically significant of…

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