Acute Kidney Injury ‚Äď AKI
Acute Kidney Injury. Image © 2013 Aya Mulder. Licensed under CC-BY.

Acute Kidney Injury – AKI

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Introduction Acute Kidney Injury - AKI¬†(formerly more commonly Acute Renal Failure) is a sudden decline in renal function significant enough to produce¬†uraemia, and also often¬†oliguria¬†‚Äď a urine output of <400ml/day.¬†It…

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Anaemia of Chronic Disease
Red Blood Cell

Anaemia of Chronic Disease

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Introduction Anaemia of Chronic Disease (ACD) is common, particularly in the hospital setting. It occurs as a result of: Chronic infection Chronic inflammation Neoplasia Chronic kidney disease The anaemia is…

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Anatomy and Development of The Urinary Tract
Anatomy of urinary tract. Image modified from original images taken from SMART by Servier Medical Art by Servier and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

Anatomy and Development of The Urinary Tract

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Summary The kidneys develop from metanephros. The bladder and urethra develop from the urogenital sinus The prostate develops from an outgrowth of the urethral epithelium Ureters These enter the pelvis…

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Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)

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Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the presence of cysts in both kidneys.¬†The cysts are numerous and fluid-filled, resulting in massive enlargement of…

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Dietary sources of calcium include milk and other dairy products, notes and seeds, fish, dates broccoli and other leafy green vegetables.


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See also: Calcium, Vitamin D and Bone Density Parathyroid Glands Roles of Calcium Contraction of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle Blood clotting Control of nerve impulses Increases in the level…

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Chronic Kidney Disease (Chronic Renal Failure)

Chronic Kidney Disease (Chronic Renal Failure)

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Introduction Chronic Kidney Disease - CKD (previously -¬†chronic renal failure)¬†involves a long-standing and often deteriorating reduction in renal function.¬†It is irreversible and generally appears over a period of years. Initially,…

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Control of Renal Function
Renal physiology and mechanism of action of diuretics. Image by Haisook at English Wikipedia

Control of Renal Function

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Summary ¬† ¬† Causes retention of‚Ķ Info Substance Mechanism H2O Na+ K+ ¬† Angiotensin-II Activation of angiotensin II is the end result of activation of the renin-angiotensin system.¬†Causes massive vasoconstriction.…

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Normal Control of Renal Function Overview Osmotic Diuretics Potassium Sparing Diuretics Thiazide Diuretics Loop Diuretics Proximal Tubule Diuretics

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Glomerulonephritis (GN)

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Introduction¬† Glomerulonephritis (GN) is a term often used to describe all pathological conditions of the glomerulus; however, strictly speaking, it refers to ‚Äúinflammation of the glomerulus‚ÄĚ. ¬†Glomerulonephritis represents a number…

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Goodpasture’s syndrome (anti-GBM antibody disease)

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  This is a rare, genetic, autoimmune condition characterised by a combination of glomerulonephritis with alveolar hemorrhage in the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies. ¬†Circulating anti-GBM antibodies…

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