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Introduction Haematuria is the passing of blood in the urine Frank Haematuriais the presence of blood on macroscopic investigation (i.e. looking at the blood) Microscopic Haematuria – is where you…

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Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS)

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Hepatorenal syndrome is renal failure secondary to liver disease. It is a life-threatening acute complication of liver failure. It is most commonly seen in alcoholic hepatitis, although can occur in…

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Loop Diuretics

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Introduction Loop diuretics are the strongest type of diuretic - they cause an increase in the excretion of sodium and water from the kidney. They are very effective, and prevent the…

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Nephritic and Nephrotic Syndrome

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Introduction Nephritic and nephrotic syndromes refer to clinical presentations of renal disease - specifically glomerulonephritis. Both terms refer to a collection of symptoms rather than a true diagnosis. The terms…

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Postural Hypotension

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Postural hypotension is a transient fall in blood pressure which causes symptoms when a patient moves from sitting or lying to standing. Physiology Moment to moment, blood pressure is controlled…

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Postural Hypotension (Orthostatic Hypotension)

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Postural Hypotension is a symptom, not a condition. This is colloquially known as a ‘head rush’ or ‘dizzy spell’, and is unsteadiness or LOC on standing from lying in those…

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The Basics 98% is intracellular Serum range 3.5 – 5 mmol/L K+ and H+ tend to vary together Most body secretion is in urine – from distal tubules Shifts K+…

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Proximal Tubule Diuretics

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Proximal tubule diuretics e.g. acetazolidamide These drugs are carbonic anyhrdrase blockers. Some sodium is reabsorbed in conjunction with hydrogen. This process relies on the carbonic anhydrase to catalyse the reaction…

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RCC – Renal Cell Carcinoma

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Introduction This is an adenocarcinoma These arise from the proximal tubular epithelium. The tumours are highly vascular, and microscopically, they will appear as large cells with clear cytoplasm. Haemorrhage within…

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Renal Physiology

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Introduction Renal physiology is complicated. Don't worry too much if you don't feel like you have a full grasp of it - most of us don't! It seems to be…

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