Candidiasis (Thrush)

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Introduction Vaginal thrush (vaginal candidiasis) is the most second cause of pathological vaginal discharge (behind bacterial vaginosis), it is not usually sexually transmitted, and is instead the result of fungal…

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Chlamydae Life Cycle


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Introduction Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT) is the most common bacterial STI. It is most common in those <30, and is often asymptomatic. It is simple to test for and to treat. Previous infection…

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Condoms This is a form of barrier contraception, and stops the sperm from reaching the egg. These are easily accessible, cheap to buy, and can also be procured free of…

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Background info 1/3 of pregnancies are unplanned The UK government now promotes long acting reversible contraception (LARC) (e.g. IUD, IUS, implant)as the best method of contraception because: Reduced chance of…

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Contraception – Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill – COCP

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Introduction Combined oral contraceptive pills contain both oestrogen and progestogen. This method is: Reliable and reversible Can reduce dysmennorrhoae (painful menstruation) and menoorhagia (heavy bleeding) Can reduce PMT (pre-menstrual tension) Reduce…

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Contraception – Intrauterine Devices (IUD)

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Introduction Intrauterine devices (IUD) are a commonly prescribed form of contraception. They are a LARC - long-active reversible contraception, and as such are often recommended ahead of other forms of…

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Culture and Contraception

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Introduction When discussing contraception with a patient, in may be useful to understand a little about the patient’s cultural and / or religious background. Obviously, it is not the medical…

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Introduction Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection, caused by Nisseria Gonorrhoae (aka Gonococcus, GC, "the clap") - a Gram-negative intracellular diplococcus. It only infects humans, and likes moist areas, typically…

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Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was first identified in 1983. Left untreated, it causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the developed world its spread is relatively limited, and modern treatment…

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Human Papilloma Virus – HPV

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Epidemiology The most common STI in the UK Estimated that 10-20% of the population have a genital HPV infection, but only 1% of the population are symptomatic at any one…

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