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Introduction and Definitions A hernia is ‚Äď a protrusion of a viscous out of a containing cavity. i.e. it is when a structure passes through another thing and ends up…

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Hiatus Hernia

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A hiatus hernia occurs when part of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm up into the thoracic cavity. There are two types; sliding hiatus hernia¬†and rolling hiatus hernia. Sliding hiatus…

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Introduction This is a condition where-by one piece of bowel will ‚Äėtelescope‚Äô inside another piece, resulting in obstruction, and sometimes ischaemia. Usually it is a piece of proximal bowel passing…

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Large Bowel Obstruction

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Introduction Typically causes a less severe disease than small bowel obstruction Symptoms are more gradual in onset There are often loud borborygmi (normal bowel sounds) Rectum is usually empty, and…

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Obstructive Jaundice

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Introduction Obstructive Jaundice is a fairly common presentation to the emergency department and surgical teams. The most common cause is gallstones. You may also want to read about Gallstones and…

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Oesophageal Tumours

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Summary There are 4 types of oesophageal tumour; adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, leiomyoma and squamous papilloma. Squamous cell and adenocarcinoma are by far the most common. Squamous cell carcinoma Epidemiology…

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Other Breast Lumps

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Fibroadenoma the most common benign breast lump can occur from any age after puberty most common in the third decade Usually unifocal, but can be multiple. Pathology Made up of…

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Paget’s Disease of the Nipple

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Introduction A malignant disease which has an eczematous appearance, involving the nipple. It is commonly associated with an underlying ductal carcinoma in situ. It is associated with 2% of all…

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Pancreatic Cancer

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Introduction Pancreatic cancers are 95% exocrine, adenocarcinomas. These affect the duct or surround the duct. The remaining 5% are neuroendocrine tumours e.g. insulinomas, glucagonomas (the former being the more common).…

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Introduction Pancreatitis is a condition involving¬†inflammation of the pancreas. It can be acute or chronic;¬†acute pancreatitis can return to normal after resolution of the episode, conversely chronic pancreatitis, is continuing…

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