Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)
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Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)

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Introduction Peripheral vascular disease (PVD, also Peripheral Arterial Disease - PAD) is a chronic condition due to atherosclerosis of arteries in the limbs. The level of arterial occlusion present is proportional…

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Peripheral Vascular Exam

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Introduction introduce yourself wash your hands check you’ve got the right patient Inspection Is the patient in any pain? Check around the bed Mobility aids O2 Cigarettes Medication Look for…

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PR exam

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Indications Change of Bowel habit – constipation, diarrhea, tenesmus Rectal bleeding Perianal symptoms e.g. pain/itching/discharge Urinary symptoms in men (for BPH) Assessment of anal tone in neurological exam    …

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Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

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Introduction Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory condition that results in the fibrosis and destruction of intra-hepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. This can lead to cholestasis, hypertension and…

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Pyloric Stenosis

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Epidemiology More common in boys (4:1) Often a maternal family history Increased risk if siblings were affected Erythromycin exposure in first few weeks of life Pathology There is a functional…

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Small Bowel Obstruction

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Introduction Accounts for 80% of cases of intestinal obstruction Can be partial or complete: About 85% of partial obstruction will resolve with conservative treatment  About 85% of complete obstruction will…

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Testicular Torsion

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Definition This is when the spermatic cord (contains the vas deferens, lymphatic vessels, testicular artery, cremasteric artery, panpiniform plexus (veins), nerve to cremaster, testicular nerves) to a testicle twists therefore…

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TNM Staging System
Scoring systemis in medicine

TNM Staging System

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The TNM staging system is used in the evaluation of many cancers. Each individual cancer has its own slight variation on the system, however, it is universally applicable in its…

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Transplant Reactions

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Hyperacute Rejection Occurs within minutes (to hours) – so quick that the surgeon is sometimes able to visualise characteristic changes whilst sill performing the anastomosis of blood vessels. There is…

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Introduction Trauma is managed by teams in the Emergency Department. There is often a defined set of individuals on a ‘Trauma Team’. This might include: Team Leader – often an…

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