Anatomy and Development of The Urinary Tract
Anatomy of urinary tract. Image modified from original images taken from SMART by Servier Medical Art by Servier and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

Anatomy and Development of The Urinary Tract

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Summary The kidneys develop from metanephros. The bladder and urethra develop from the urogenital sinus The prostate develops from an outgrowth of the urethral epithelium Ureters These enter the pelvis…

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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia ‚Äď BPH
Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia – BPH

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Introduction Benign prostatic hyperplasia occurs most commonly in men over 60. The term¬†benign prostatic hypertrophy¬†is often used interchangeably with benign prostatic hyperplasia, but is less correct.¬†Hyperplasia¬†refers to an increase in…

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Urinary Catheter with inflated balloon


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Indications Urinary retention Monitor fluid output (e.g. post-op, renal failure, trauma, sepsis, general illness) ‚Äď in pretty much all seriously ill patients! ‚Äď also pre-op to measure urine output during…

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Erectile Dysfunction

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Introduction Erectile dysfunction is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It affects up to 50% of men between 40 and 70. Erection requires…

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Introduction Haematuria is the passing of blood in the urine Frank Haematuriais the presence of blood on macroscopic investigation (i.e. looking at the blood) Microscopic Haematuria ‚Äď is where you…

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Types of incontinence This is the involuntary loss of urine, that is serious enough to cause a social or hygiene problem. It becomes more prevalent with age, with about 15%…

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Kidney Stone (Renal Calculus)

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Introduction Renal calculi (kidney stones) are precipitates that form from urine due to a high concentration of that particular precipitate in the urine. The most common (85%) precipitate is calcium;…

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Prostate Cancer

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Introduction By the age of 80, >80% of men have prostate cancer It is the second most common cancer in men, and the 4th¬†most common cause of death for men…

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Introduction Prostatitis refers to inflammation of the prostate, most commonly a result of infection (either UTI or STI). Prostatitis affects up to 15% of men at some point in the…

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PSA – Prostate Specific Antigen

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Normal level ~4 It is raised in 80% of patients at age 80. So, in many patients it is raised in normal circumstances Levels increase with age In prostate cancer,…

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