Breast Cancer
Normal breast anatomy. Image from CDC.

Breast Cancer

  • Reading time:22 mins read

Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of death from cancer, after lung cancer. There are more published studies (on PubMed)…

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Breast Examination
Normal breast anatomy. Image from CDC.

Breast Examination

  • Reading time:6 mins read

Background Info Presentations of Breast Disease Lump Pain - Rare in breast cancer Asymmetry - Change in breast size – particularly related to the menstrual cycle Change in breast feature…

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Other Breast Lumps

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Fibroadenoma the most common benign breast lump can occur from any age after puberty most common in the third decade Usually unifocal, but can be multiple. Pathology Made up of…

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Paget’s Disease of the Nipple

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Introduction A malignant disease which has an eczematous appearance, involving the nipple. It is commonly associated with an underlying ductal carcinoma in situ. It is associated with 2% of all…

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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
A polycystic ovary as shown on USS

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

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Introduction Polycystic ovarian syndrome - PCOS (aka Hyperandrogen Chronic Anovulation) is a very common cause of amenorrhoea and oligomenorrhoea. It is important as it is associated with systemic features, including acne, decreased…

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Postcoital Bleeding

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Introduction Postcoital bleeding refers to vaginal bleeding (or spotting) that occurs after sexual intercourse, and is not related to menstruation. It is important to consider cervical cancer as possible cause,…

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Postnatal Care

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Definitions Term baby – between 37 – 41 weeks Pre-term baby – before 37 weeks Post term baby – after 42 weeks Neonate - <28 days old Stillbirth – dead…

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The Menstrual Cycle

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Introduction The menstrual cycle is on average, 28 days long. It can be between 20-45 days. It varies from person to person, and month to month. A few quick facts:…

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